Wednesday, 5 October 2016

English Outreach: Digitising Jane Austen's Fiction Manuscripts

Jane Austen's 'History of England' (1790-93)

I have a long-standing interest in academic outreach, and am always pleased to see new projects that engage the public with academic research. Having always enjoyed working with school-aged students, I’m particularly interested in how academics working in the field of English literature can engage Key Stage 4 and 5 (GCSE and A-level) students with research. As part of my current role as a Career Development Fellow at Hertford College, Oxford, I design and deliver academic sessions for students of this age, covering topics such as the Last Man in Romantic literature (of course!), Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the Gothic, literary theory, and Romantic love poetry.

While lots of academics are carrying out this sort of outreach work, there are very few opportunities for us to get together with each other – and with teachers – to discuss the ways in which we go about providing outreach and to share best practice. It was for this reason that I organised ‘Academics in the Classroom’, a two-day workshop that took place back in August. This workshop brought together over fifty academics, teachers, and professionals from theatres, libraries, and museums across the UK to consider the wealth of English outreach work that is already being carried out and to discuss how we might innovate in the future.

I found it fascinating to learn about some of the great projects and programmes already taking place, and to hear feedback from teacher colleagues about how academics can best support schools. Our twitter feed, @EnglishOutreach, gives a flavour of some of the discussions that took place, and video recordings of each session are also available to watch on our website. If you’re interested in English outreach, whether as an academic, teacher, student, or another member of the wider English community, please do get in touch with your thoughts! Over the coming months, I’ll be publishing a series of guest blog posts about all aspects of English outreach on the project websiteso if you’re currently participating in any projects – or, indeed, if you’re looking for partners with whom to work – please drop me an email at catherine.redford@hertford.ox.ac.uk.

Manuscript of Chapter 10 from Persuasion
One project that we heard about at the workshop was ‘Digitising Jane Austen’s Fiction Manuscripts’, which is being led by Professor Kathryn Sutherland (University of Oxford). This project – which was highlighted by Dr Lesley Paterson in her talk on public engagement with research – brings together over 1,100 pages of Austen’s manuscripts, published as high-quality digital images on a free-to-use website. These manuscripts, which are located in museums, libraries, and private collections around the world, have previously been accessible to just a handful of scholars, but are now available for anyone with an interest in Austen to enjoy. The images are even encoded to make them fully searchable, meaning that the manuscripts are available for analysis in close detail.

This is a brilliant example of public engagement with research, as the project is simultaneously an invaluable research resource for scholars and of great interest to any general reader of Austen’s books. Professor Sutherland is currently also piloting a transcription tool to be used in schools, which will enable students to engage with the manuscripts in a more interactive way. I regularly run a session for school students on Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein manuscript, and often see the students in these sessions really relishing the challenge of deciphering an author’s hand and using the manuscripts to learn about the writing process. I'm therefore really interested to see how this pilot goes - I'm sure that it will be very popular with students and teachers alike!

I know from the emails I receive that this blog is read by all sorts of people with an interest in Romanticism, including academics, university students, school students, and other general members of the public. Whatever your background, the digital edition of Austen’s fiction manuscripts is an excellent resource, bringing together manuscripts from around the world that trace Austen’s development as a writer from her teenage years to her final works.


Monday, 23 May 2016

Frankenstein: A New Ballet

Image: © British Library
When I first heard that the Royal Opera House was planning to stage Frankenstein as a ballet I was hugely excited and intrigued, but also a little wary: how would this classic Romantic work – and seminal Gothic masterpiece – translate to dance? Of course, Frankenstein has been adapted for stage and screen numerous times; in the decades following the novel’s publication, it was the inspiration for Richard Brinsley Peake’s Presumption; or, The Fate of Frankenstein (1823) and H. M. Milner’s The Man and the Monster! Or, the Fate of Frankenstein (1852). More recently, the text has inspired several films, including Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1994), I, Frankenstein (2014), and Victor Frankenstein (2015). In 2011, the Royal National Theatre staged an adaptation written by Nick Dear and directed by Danny Boyle in which the two lead actors swapped the roles of Frankenstein and the Creature on alternating nights.

As far as I know, though, there’s never been a dance version of Frankenstein, so I was really interested to see how this new adaptation by Liam Scarlett, the Royal Ballet’s Artist in Residence, would work. I have to admit, I was a bit cynical about how a text that is structured around story-telling and made up a layers of narration could be told without words. Scarlett overcomes this challenge, however, by showing us different perspectives: the creature learns about the world in parallel with the young William, just as in the novel Frankenstein's story of what happens when he returns home is followed by the Creature outlining his experiences during this period.

Walton is completely absent from this adaptation, which is entirely understandable: it would be very difficult to transpose Shelley’s intricate narratorial structure to the stage in its entirety. In other respects, however, Scarlett's production remains more faithful to the text than other recent artistic responses. Act I shows us Frankenstein’s childhood in detail, telling the story of how Elizabeth comes to be a part of the family and grows up alongside Frankenstein. Laura Morera is absolutely stunning as Elizabeth, conveying her character’s tenderness and longing and placing her at the centre of the story.

J. M. W. Turner, 'Mer de Glace' (1803)
The set for this ballet is really beautifully designed – there are lots of little details that really add to the production. The backdrop for Act II appears to have been inspired by Mary Shelley’s contemporary descriptions of the ‘shattered pines’ that were scattered around the landscape that she saw in Switzerland in 1816, and seems to draw on contemporary paintings such as J. M. W. Turner’s ‘Mer de Glace, in the Valley of Chamouni, Switzerland’ (1803). Likewise, the apocalyptic ending (in which Frankenstein dies, but in an unexpected manner… I’ll say no more!) is complemented by a fiery backdrop that is reminiscent of John Martin’s work.

The anatomy theatre in which Frankenstein learns about the human body before reconstructing a dissected cadaver and bringing him back to life was similarly atmospheric, managing to be cold and bleak and yet also full of interesting details such as specimen jars filled with grotesque samples. Contemporary scientific experiments were, of course, often ‘performed’ before the public; Humphry Davy in particular was concerned with how scientific lecturers should present themselves before an audience. It’s therefore entirely appropriate that the anatomy theatre in this ballet becomes a space of performance, with Thomas Whitehead playing an intense and theatrical professor. Like the mesmerised students on stage, the viewers in the audience are drawn into a world of scientific wonder where anything seems possible.

Image: © Royal Opera House
The anatomy theatre also functions as a kind of nightmarish mental space, symbolising Frankenstein’s obsession and torment. Various images are projected onto the walls, from whirling, imprisoning bars to raging lightening as Frankenstein’s work draws to a climax. The skeletons that adorn the set are both spooky and scientific, illustrating how Mary Shelley took the supernatural Gothic conventions of the eighteenth century and transformed them into a new, modern Gothic for the nineteenth century. The sterile and scientific setting of the laboratory is far removed from the traditional crumbling Gothic castle so commonplace in late eighteenth-century literature, but is just as scary. This transformation of Gothic conventions in Mary Shelley’s work is suggested from the beginning of the ballet, which opens with a picture of a fear-inducing skull which is then overlaid with scientific notes and diagrams.

Steven McRae plays a Creature who is about as distant from the Hollywood version as you can get – he’s sensitive, sensual, and longs for companionship (I must admit, I had a little weep in the third Act). McRae uses dance to grant the Creature a voice, demonstrating how he learns social courtesies from little William and longs to experience the romantic love shown by Frankenstein and Elizabeth. His feelings for his creator are intense and erotic, and in the final fight between the pair Frankenstein’s repulsion is countered by the Creature’s attraction: where Frankenstein attempts to hurt and destroy, the Creature seems to embrace. 

Image: © Royal Opera House
Despite Frankenstein’s apparent horror at his creation’s love for him, his own feelings for the
Creature reveal a homoerotic desire at times; Frankenstein straddles the Creature as he attempts to bring him to life, making the moment of birth (and the moment at which the father waits to meet his son) simultaneously a moment of copulation. Just as the Creature occupies peripheral spaces in the novel (hiding out in mountain ranges and peering through windows), so too does McRae’s Creature hide in the shadows on stage, lurking behind trees and flashing before Frankenstein’s eyes during the wedding dance.

If you have tickets for this brilliant production (lucky you!), I hope that you enjoy it – let me know what you think! If you didn’t manage to get tickets, there are a few little videos available on the Royal Opera House website that will give you an idea of what the production was like. This has all the makings of a classic ballet, so I’m sure that it will be performed again in the future.

Thursday, 21 April 2016

Journal Lists: Reading Literature in Serial Form

January 1891 issue of All the Year Round
When I teach the likes of Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins to my undergraduates, I always encourage them to think about the way in which these texts were originally published: not as weighty tomes, but in serial form. Readers of periodicals such as Master Humphrey’s ClockBentley’s MiscellanyHousehold Words, and All The Year Round would follow stories in instalments over several months, and delighted in writing to the authors to outline their hopes (and fears) for forthcoming episodes.  

Given this publishing history, it’s rather odd that we now read these texts in single-volume form, paying little, if any, attention to the original breaks in the narrative. The same is true when we approach the numerous letters and diaries – both real and fictional – produced in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; we consume huge chunks at once without a second thought for their chronology in terms of composition or publication.

If, like me, you’ve always fancied having a go at reading one of these texts in the instalments in which it was first produced or published, you’ll be delighted to hear about a recent project called Journal Lists. Set up by Hazel Wilkinson and Will Bowers, this website allows you to receive instalments of a variety of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century works straight to your inbox – and all free of charge.

Lord Byron by Thomas Phillips
In January and February this year, I really enjoyed receiving Byron’s Ravenna Journal day by day, and I can confirm that it really makes a difference to read a text in this way. By consuming a text at a slower pace, the reader has time to dwell on individual entries and consider details that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. I don’t think that I’d have noticed how miserable Byron was about the weather in early January had I not been confronted with his lamentations each and every morning. On 4 January, Byron complained ‘weather bad – bad as England – worse’, while the next day he notes that it’s ‘dripping and dense’. 6 January sees ‘Mist – thaw – slop – rain’, followed on 7 January by ‘rain – mist – snow – drizzle’: you get the picture! Had I read through these entries quickly, I’m not sure that I would have picked up on the length of time for which this bad weather endured, but having to read Byron’s observations daily I found myself getting nearly as fed up with the damp, gloomy conditions as he was!

I’m currently subscribed to John Clare’s The Shepherd’s Calendar, which pings into my inbox on the first of each month, and to William Cobbett’s Rural Rides. Daily issues of The Spectator and instalments of Dickens’s Hard Times are currently going strong. I’m very much looking forward to Mary and Percy Shelley’s Geneva letters, which start on 17 May – I’ve already signed up for this one!

To explore the other texts available for subscription and to find out more about this brilliant project, visit the Journal Lists website. 

Tuesday, 8 March 2016

Celebrating International Women's Day with the Romantics

Happy International Women’s Day! I’ve seen quite a few articles today that – quite rightly – highlight the achievements and struggles of contemporary women, but I thought I’d mark the day by putting together a list of some of my favourite literary women from the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. So here, in no particular order, are ten women who you should make time to read; why not celebrate International Women’s Day by picking up one of the suggested texts below?


Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley (1797-1851)
Mary Shelley was a pioneer of science fiction, writing Frankenstein (1818) while she was still a teenager. Shelley went on to write numerous novels, short stories, travelogues, letters, journals, and biographies in her lifetime, demonstrating extraordinary range. Her fiction explores the Gothic, the historical, the fantastic, and the futuristic, experimenting with narrative voice and frequently examining gender issues.
Where to start: Frankenstein; The Last Man; Mathilda


Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
An advocate of women’s rights, the philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft was Mary Shelley’s mother. In her A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) she argued that women aren’t naturally inferior to men, stressing that their ‘appearance of weakness’ is caused by their lack of education and suggesting that women should ‘share the advantages of education and government with man’.
Where to start: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; Mary: A Fiction; Letters Written in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark


Felicia Hemans (1793-1835)
Felicia Hemans
Felicia Hemans was the most widely-read female poet in the English-speaking world during the nineteenth century. A writer of letters and prose as well as poetry, Hemans’s work is hugely patriotic, and frequently explores the position of women in the world.
Where to start: ‘The Image in Lava’; England and Spain; ‘The Grave of a Poetess’


Dorothy Wordsworth (1771-1855)
In her poem 'Why Dorothy Wordsworth is not as Famous as her Brother', Lynn Peters playfully depicts a frustrated Dorothy attempting to compose poetry while being constantly distracted by William’s questions about his laundry and meals. While Dorothy did not become a great poet, her journals present a vivid description of her day-to-day life, and even helped to inspire her brother: William’s famous ‘Daffodils’ is clearly influenced by Dorothy’s diary entry for 15 April 1802 in which she records how she’s seen daffodils that ‘tossed & reeled & danced & seemed as if they verily laughed with the wind that blew upon them over the Lake, they looked so gay ever glancing ever changing’.
Where to start: The Grasmere and Alfoxden Journals


Anna Laetitia Barbauld
Anna Laetitia Barbauld (1743-1825)
Anna Laetitia Barbauld was considered one of the great writers of her time, producing poems, essays, and children’s literature. A middle-class Protestant dissenter, Barbauld’s work addressed issues such as religious liberty, gender equality, and the slave trade.
Where to start: ‘Washing Day’; ‘Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade’; ‘Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, a Poem’



Mary Hays (1759-1843)
Mary Hays was very much influenced by Mary Wollstonecraft, and corresponded with a number of radicals and non-conformists during her lifetime. Drawing on her own experiences, Hays used her novels to consider female desire and class hierarchies. Although Hays’s work was widely criticised at the time for being too radical and unfeminine, she’s now receiving increased critical attention.  
Where to start: Memoirs of Emma Courtney; The Victim of Prejudice


Ann Radcliffe (1764-1823)
Mrs Radcliffe was a pioneer of the Gothic novel in the 1790s, using the ‘explained supernatural’ to ultimately attribute earthly causes to seemingly ghostly occurrences. Often interspersing her prose with poetry, Radcliffe’s descriptions of nature engage with the sublime and have a distinctly pictorial quality.
Where to start: The Mysteries of Udolpho; The Italian; The Romance of the Forest


Jane Austen
Jane Austen (1775-1817)
One of the most widely-read writers in English, Jane Austen is still beloved by scholars, the casual reading public, and dedicated ‘Janeites’ alike. A bold experimenter with free indirect speech, Austen produced works loaded with social commentary that interrogates the position of women in society. Recent feminist, Marxist, and postcolonial approaches to Austen’s work have opened up the novels in new ways, and her work continues to be adapted frequently for film and television.
Where to start: Pride and Prejudice; Emma; Persuasion


Elizabeth Hands (1746-1815)
Elizabeth Hands was a labouring-class poet in the eighteenth century. Little is known about her life, but it’s believed that she worked as a domestic servant. Her work is intelligent and satirical, addressing ideas of social status, literature, and domesticity.
Where to start: ‘A Poem, on the Supposition of an Advertisement Appearing in a Morning Paper’; ‘A Poem, on the Supposition of the Book Having Been Published and Read’; ‘Written, Originally Extempore, on Seeing a Mad Heifer’


Charlotte Smith
Charlotte Smith (1749-1806)
Charlotte Smith was a key Romantic writer, helping to shape the concerns and conventions of the period. A reviver of the sonnet, Smith experimented with form in her poetry and explored both the Gothic and sentimentality in her novels. She was also the author of four children’s books. Recent scholarship has shown that Smith particularly influenced William Wordsworth.
Where to start: Elegiac Sonnets; ‘Beachy Head’

Monday, 1 February 2016

Imagining the Apocalypse in the Long Eighteenth Century

John Martin's 'The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum' (1822)
In last month’s blog post, I mentioned that I was in the process of organising a conference around the theme of ‘Imagining Apocalypse’. I’m pleased to announce that the Call for Papers has now been released, and any academics with an interest in depictions of apocalypse across the long eighteenth century are warmly encouraged to submit a paper. Further details can be found here.

As I’m keen to open out academic research to non-academics, we’re planning to end the conference with a fantastic event that I’m hoping will be enjoyed by a wider audience: a staging of William H. Callcott’s opera The Last Man, which was written in 1826. Based on Thomas Campbell’s poem of the same name, this opera received rave reviews at the time – and was performed again in 1827, 1828, and 1830 – but has subsequently been forgotten. Regular readers will know that I’m a big fan of the Last Man theme in Romantic literature, so I’m hugely excited about reviving this opera. We plan to record the event in order to make it available to a wider range of people; do look out for further details of that on this blog over the coming months!

Frontispiece to A Revealed Knowledge
Although my own personal research interests lie in Last Man literature, there was lots going on over the course of the long eighteenth century (roughly 1660-1830) when it came to ideas of apocalypse. Many people responded to the French Revolution by thinking about it in apocalyptic terms, and the growth of cities such as London was frequently explored with apocalyptic imagery. Richard Brothers – a radical protestant and Calvinist – depicted London as the sinful city of Revelation in his A Revealed Knowledge of the Prophecies and Times (1794), describing how ‘her streets are full of prostitutes, and many of her houses are full of crimes; it is for such exceeding wickedness that St John spiritually calls London [in Revelation] by the name of Sodom’.

The summer of 1816 – otherwise known as the Year Without a Summer – was also filled with apocalyptic anxiety as people speculated that the gloomy weather heralded the end of the world. Indeed, the April 1816 edition of the Literary Panorama led with a headline that warned ‘The End of the World! The End of the World!’. This was the summer in which Lord Byron wrote his famous poem ‘Darkness’: a text that imagines the death of the sun and the subsequent demise of humanity.

Joanna Southcott
Millenarial cults were, unsurprisingly, flourishing at this time. The self-proclaimed prophetess Joanna Southcott gained a following of 100,000 by 1808 due to her supposed ability to see visions of the forthcoming New Jerusalem, with this cult achieving a second climax in 1814 when Southcott suffered a hysterical pregnancy and claimed that she would give birth to the son of God. In 1826, Mary Shelley examined the dangers of such cults in her novel The Last Man, in which a charlatan in Paris sets himself up as a prophet and recruits numerous followers as a terrible plague sweeps the globe.

We’ll be exploring all of these ideas and more at the ‘Imagining Apocalypse’ conference. In the meantime, here's an article that I recently wrote for The Conversation about how the theme of survival has dominated this year’s Oscar nominations; it seems that our interest in post-apocalypse, the Last Man, and living on against the odds continues!

Tuesday, 5 January 2016

Jane Austen in 2016

Title page of the first edition of Emma
Happy New Year, Romanticism fans! 2016 is set to be an exciting year for Romanticists, not least because it marks the 200th anniversary of the 'year without a summer' which saw the creation of key Romantic texts such as Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Lord Byron's 'Darkness'. I'm currently organising an interdisciplinary conference that will look at depictions of apocalypse in 1816 and throughout the long eighteenth century; do keep an eye out for the CFP, which will be released shortly!

The end of 2015 also saw the 200th anniversary of Jane Austen's Emma, which was published on 23 December 1815 (although the title page gives 1816 as the date of publication). As you can imagine, there's a lot going on this year to mark the anniversary and to celebrate Austen more generally. Whether you're a dedicated Janeite or simply want to find out more about Austen's life and work, there's an event out there for you! Here's my guide to the best of Jane Austen in 2016...

Jane Austen Society Study Day: Persuasion
Organised by the Institute of English Studies, this study day is due to take place on Saturday 13 February 2016. Standard registration is £35, but there are reduced rates available for Jane Austen Society members and the unwaged (£25) and for students (£15). The programme for the day looks excellent, and includes Linda Bree speaking on 'Persuasion in Context' and Peter Sabor on 'Captain Benwick's Miniature'. 
Further details about the event can be found here.

Jane Austen's House Museum: Special Exhibitions
Jane Austen's House Museum in Chawton, Hampshire, is open to the public throughout the year (although do note that it closes during the week for the first six weeks of the year). As well as exploring the house where Austen spent the last eight years of her life, visitors are able to view a variety of Austen artefacts and engage with interactive exhibits. Until 22 March 2016, there's a special exhibition on Emma Imagined to mark the bicentenary of the novel, which will demonstrate how artists, costume designers, and film-makers have been inspired by Emma. After 22 March, a new exhibition called Emma in Print will open.
Further details about these exhibitions can be found here.

16th Annual Jane Austen Festival
The annual Bath-based Austen festival will take place on 9-18 September this year. The 2016 programme has yet to be released, but previous events have included talks, tours, recitals, workshops, and Regency costumes a-plenty!
Watch out for further details here.

Jane Austen Regency Week
Nine days of Austen-based events will take place in Alton and Chawton on 18-26 June 2016. This year's programme is still being finalised, but will include singing, drama, music, tours, talks, and a ball!
Find out more about the event here.

Summer of 1816: Creativity and Turmoil
This conference will be held in Sheffield on 24-27 June 2016 and will consider all things 1816! The CFP closes on 15 January 2016; one of the suggested topics for papers is the commemoration of the anniversary of Emma
Find out more about the conference here.

So there you have it: a year of Austen! I saw in 2016 with my own celebration of Austen by visiting Lyme Park - the setting for Pemberley in the BBC's 1995 adaptation of Pride and Prejudice - on New Year's Day. Alas, I didn't see Mr Darcy emerging from the lake, but I think you'll agree that the house and grounds are stunning - perfect for a bracing winter's walk!






Tuesday, 22 December 2015

The Wordsworths: Romantics at Christmas

William Wordsworth's ice skates
When I decided to write a post about the Romantics at Christmas, one family immediately came to mind: the Wordsworths. The festive season repeatedly punctuates William Wordsworth's work, from a community gathered together at Christmas in 'The Thorn' and the image of a family sitting 'Like happy people round a Christmas fire' in 'Michael' to the minstrels playing their 'Christmas tune' in the River Duddon sonnets. We encounter joyful recollections of the 'frosty season' in Book I of The Prelude, in which Wordsworth explains how 'cottage windows through the twilight blazed'. The poem reveals how the young William 'wheeled about' on his ice skates, 'Proud and exulting, like an untired horse / That cares not for its home'. 

Unfortunately, Christmas was not always a happy time for Wordsworth. In Book XI of The Prelude, he recalls the Christmas of 1783 in what has become known as the 'Waiting for the Horses' episode. Wordsworth recollects how at thirteen years of age he waited, 'Feverish, and tired, and restless', to return home for the holidays, only for his father to die within ten days. Although Wordsworth found something positive in this 'spot of time', returning to the memory in future years to 'drink / As at a fountain' and seek consolation, the episode certainly has a sombre tone.

Christmas Day was also an important time for the Wordsworth family for another, happier, reason: it was the date on which, in 1771, William's sister Dorothy was born. Dorothy clearly reflected a great deal on the date of her birthday, writing to Lady Beaumont on 25 December 1805 that:

[A] birthday is to every body a time of serious thought, but more so, I should think, when it happens to be upon a day of general festivity, and especially on Christmas-day, when all persons, however widely scattered, are in their thoughts gathered together at home. I can almost tell where every Birth-day of my life was spent, many of them even how from a very early time.

Dorothy proceeds to explain that for a number of years (between the deaths of her mother and father) she was 'never once at home' for Christmas, and talks with sadness about the memories of the season held by her brothers of which she is not a part. 

Dorothy Wordsworth
Understandably, the adult Dorothy clearly relished being with her family at this time of year. She writes contentedly in her journal on Christmas Eve 1802 that 'William is now sitting by me [...] I have been beside him ever since tea running the heel of a stocking, repeating some of his sonnets to him, listening to his own repeating, reading some of Milton's & the Allegro & Penseroso'. Within this tiny glimpse of one seemingly unremarkable Christmas Eve at Dove Cottage, we're able to view a picture of genuine harmony and tenderness between the two siblings. 

While Christmas may have had sad associations at times for both William and Dorothy, then, they certainly cherished being reunited as adults. Even simple pleasures such as a walk together were moments to be treasured; I shall close this post with Dorothy's journal entry for 26 December 1801, in which the landscape is described as being so still and quiet that the pair could be the only people in the world at that moment:

The rain went off & we walked to Rydale - it was very pleasant - Grasmere Lake a beautiful image of stillness, clear as glass, reflecting all things - the wind was up & the waters sounding. The lake of a rich purple, the field a soft yellow, the Island yellowish-green, the copses Red Brown the mountains purple. The Church & buildings, how quiet they were!

Thank you to all those who have read my blog in 2015; wishing you all a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!